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Wednesday, July 12, 2006

Bleeding in early Pregnanacy

BLEEDING IN EARLY PREGNANCY
The term 'early pregnancy' refers to the duration of pregnancy in the 1st trimester according to some researchers. Others however describe 'early pregnancy' to mean the duration of pregnancy from the implantation of the fertilized ovum to the 20th week of pregnancy. For the sake of convenience, here, early pregnancy means pregnancy up to and including the 20th week of pregnancy. Late pregnancy describes the period from the end of the 20th week to term, that is to the end of the 40th week (the total duration of pregnancy being 40 weeks).
Bleeding in Early Pregnancy can be due to : Abortion
Threatened abortion
Incomplete abortion
Inevitable abortion
Missed Abortion
Habitual Abortion
Septic Abortion
Ectopic Pregnancy
Implantation Bleeding
Molar Pregnancy
Cervical Erosion
Cervical Polyp
ABORTION
Abortion is defined as the expulsion or extraction from its mother of a foetus or embryo weighing less than 500 grams (20-22 completed weeks of gestation) whether that abortion was spontaneous or induced. About 20% of all pregnancies end in abortion. Since many pregnancies end at or around the time of implantation, i.e. before the first missed period, they go unnoticed. About 80% of all recognized abortions occur during the 2nd or 3rd months of pregnancy. The others occur during the remaining months up to 22 weeks.
Causes of Abortion:
Abortions may be spontaneous or induced.
Spontaneous abortion: can be due to: Fault in the embryo: Embryos with chromosomal defects are seen in about two-thirds of all early abortions.
There may also be a defect in the placenta causing death of the foetus.
Fault in the maternal environment: maternal diseases causing high fever.
Infections by toxoplasma (common) or by Listeria monocytogenes.
Hormonal deficiencies as in progesterone deficiency in corpus luteum defect, or in hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism.
Cervical Incompetence
Rh iso-immunization ABO incompatibility
Uterine fibroid causing improper implantation of the placenta
Physical trauma, e.g. a blow on the abdomen or that caused by a fall.
Surgical trauma due to any operation.
Congenital malformations of the uterus like hypoplastic uterus, unicornuate, bicornuate uterus, septate uterus etc

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